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30 Years Gone, and Oh, How We Still Love Orson Welles w/Pics & Discography

Truthdig – By John Patterson – July 30, 2015

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Photo: Orson Welles. (Wikipedia)

On the centenary of his birth and the 30th anniversary of his death at age 70 in 1985, interest in Orson Welles has been stirred by the discovery of a fragment of his memoir and the release of a new documentary by Chuck Workman, “Magician: The Astonishing Life and Work of Orson Welles.” An entirely fresh approach to Welles’ life, work and afterlife is offered by F.X. Feeney’s biography-cum-memoir, “Orson Welles: Power, Heart and Soul.” In it, Feeney tells Welles’ life story as it relates to his work and his politics, drawing on his four decades of deep thinking about Welles and his films, but also delving into the work of earlier biographers and academics who have worked to shape and protect—and sometimes distort—Welles’ legacy and reputation. In a characteristically Wellesian narrative flourish, Feeney inserts himself into the later stages of the narrative to discuss his own adaptation of Welles’ 1982 screenplay “The Big Brass Ring,” which was filmed in 1999 by the late George Hickenlooper.

Truthdig talked with Feeney about Welles’ posthumous reputation and the myths and misconceptions that adhere to his memory, with special reference to the political activities and utterances he engaged in throughout his life.

Notwithstanding all that we’ve learned about him and his work in the 30 years since his death, we still imagine Welles as this figure, this “genius,” throwing away his talent, squandering goodwill, unable to complete anything, nailing himself to the cross of his own worst instincts, prostituting his talent on chat shows and TV guest spots, and generally wasting his own time and ours. All this despite the fact that a good deal of the material and new information unearthed since his death tends to totally undermine these perceptions. What is the state of Welles’ reputation at 100?

You actually get to start over with Welles these days. You can explain him all over again to people now. Welles is central to the culture in a lot of ways, but what movies mean has changed; movies are no longer at the center of motion-picture culture. If there is a sense of calcification, of opinions about him petrifying forever as soon as his obituaries are published, it has to do with an abiding misperception of Hollywood as the epicenter of movies. Too many critics and biographers see Welles as the victim of a system. Now, Hollywood is one kind of system, but then there’s the larger system of the world Welles lived in. He’s nobody’s victim, that’s for sure. He’s a survivor, even though he may be making bad choices. His reputation on the day he died was as someone who’d never reached his full potential. But, as he once said, “Oh, how they’ll love me when I’m dead.”

It’s very easy to think that the creative climax of his life comes at age 23, with the release of “Citizen Kane,” and that thereafter it’s all downhill for him.

Yes, the most toxic myth about Welles is that he had it all—and blew it, threw it all away, and that pervades a lot of accounts. People ask how could he not stay at that summit? He simply fell prey to every fortune of life. There’s the war coming on. He’s making movies that don’t make money for a studio with a bottom line that wants profits he’s not delivering. There’s taking on an immensely powerful tycoon in the form of William Randolph Hearst. And Welles has his own personality to deal with as well. The other thing that caused people to go against him from the outset was that he was, before arriving in Hollywood, a celebrity, a household name, already world-famous.

He was fully formed when he arrived in Hollywood. He was a talented sketch artist all his life—essentially a born storyboarder; a pioneering sound designer because of his revolutionary radio work; a gifted imagist, as proven by his lighting designs for the stage—especially his fascist “Julius Caesar,” which, like “Kane,” was very proto-noir in its extreme chiaroscuro; obviously Shakespeare and the theater are thoroughly embedded in his DNA from the cradle onward; and he’s also a professional magician, literally an illusionist. What else do you need for cinema? That’s like the recipe for cinema!

Absolutely. You can say he was unprecedented, so the things that befell him were the kind that tend to attach themselves to unprecedented phenomena. Then there’s his own nature. Michere MacLiammmat, who directed him as a teenager at the Gate Theatre in Dublin, said that he was “undisciplined.” Now, listen to that word closely. He was always hardworking, so that wasn’t the issue. The real point was he was nobody’s >i>disciple. I think he had certain masters—as he said himself, “I’ve studied all the old masters—John Ford, John Ford and John Ford.” But he could cherry-pick the examples he wanted to make use of. He was, on the whole, his own consultant.

His work was never not political, it seems. Right from his earliest stage successes—his “Macbeth” (1936), with an all-black cast, and his fascist-themed “Julius Caesar” of 1937—he is provoking reactions, drawing uncomfortable political parallels.

The [so-called] “Voodoo Macbeth” was the production [Welles and producer John Houseman] made their mark with, in April 1936. That audience was absolutely galvanized. The most moving reaction was recorded by the novelist James Baldwin, who was in the audience as a 12-year-old, with his white teacher, who was an activist. He had read Shakespeare but had not conceived of it as being directed toward him, so to see people of his own race enacting that story and owning it was mesmerizing for him, a beautiful experience he describes in his book “The Devil Finds Work.” Everyone in the audience was affected the same way. We see “Gone With the Wind” with Hattie MacDaniel and Butterfly McQueen and think, “Well, this is the way black people were treated on screen.” That was the norm, the inescapable norm, but no, Welles and Houseman broke the back of that right off, which was very radical.

As for “Caesar,” as it was titled, Welles was obviously very well aware of the rise of Mussolini’s fascists and the Nazis in Germany, so he took Leni Riefenstahl’s iconography—the searchlights going vertically, familiar from the Nuremberg party rallies, to look like pillars of light, and had his Romans dressed in jackboots and leather, and saluting each other in the fascist style, which was actually also very much the Roman style. Basically they’re sieg heiling each other—that was sufficient for the audience of the day, very unsettling and powerful.

And of course, he was a syndicated newspaper columnist and radio commentator for a number of years before, during and after the war, often espousing what for those times were some very radical ideas, about race in particular.

With the outbreak of the war, he was immediately involved with patriotic things, and he was also a major performer in “The March of Time,” which of course he spoofs in “Citizen Kane,” so he did have that sense of commenting. And there was the radio drama series, “Orson Welles’s Almanac.” In 1941, for instance, he does an episode called “His Honor the Mayor,” about the mayor of a small Mexican border town and his political enemies, racists and anti-unionists, basically all about the Bill of Rights.

Which sounds like a foretaste of “Touch of Evil.”

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Photo: Orson Welles

We often think of the later work as later, but all of that is already there early on in embryonic form. His work on “Touch of Evil” is also a reflection of his campaign on behalf the 19 young men wrongly arrested and convicted for the so-called ”Sleepy Lagoon murder” case in 1944. His flogging of that issue in his radio commentaries helped overturn those verdicts completely. But he attracts unwelcome attention very quickly. As early as April 1941 he’s already being spied on by the FBI.

We face this myth that he abandoned “The Magnificent Ambersons” to go gallivanting around Rio, that he just left it to be vandalized by RKO, when in fact he was summoned to Washington and he went to Brazil for his country.

Exactly. He was very politically ambitious for himself, and when war broke out—Pearl Harbor happened while he was filming the snow scenes for “Ambersons” —he flew to Washington and was ready to help. They were worried about Getúlio Vargas, the dictator of Brazil, drifting into the orbit of the Axis powers, and the idea, backed by Nelson Rockerfeller, was to create a “Friendship Zone.” So Welles and “It’s All True,” and his role as a goodwill ambassador, were a part of that. Welles did not abandon “Ambersons;” he in fact finished “Ambersons,” and had a cut prepared by Robert Wise. People say he abandoned it, though, and the legend just sticks.

As you say of that legend, that terribly limited perception of him, in what I think is the most important moment in your book, “What if he was something else entirely? My contention is that he wanted to conquer life, not movies, which is what made his movies so great in the first place.”

It was big for me to realize that too. I had to realize how many received ideas had just come into my mind by osmosis; simply because I live and work here in Los Angeles, I have the same kind of aspirations as others in this town, and it can be all too easy to think the same way. As Robert Wise, his editor, once said, “Well, what became of him after?” And my answer is, he went to Europe and became an artist.

You turn the question around: What did he make of himself?

Exactly. Exile as an active stance, a statement, not a retreat.

After being so engaged politically in the ’30s Popular Front era, in the period of his exile from 1947 to 1956 he seems to retreat almost entirely from direct or explicit political engagement. It was as though he refused even to contemplate submitting to the questioning of [the House Un-American Activities Committee].

I think several things happened to Welles in 1947. Simon Callow in his biography expresses surprise that Welles didn’t get more heavily involved in the independent Henry Wallace campaign in 1947-8 with the Progressive Party, which was closer to his own beliefs. But I think Welles saw the folly in creating a third party and dividing the Democrats. So on one practical level, he wasn’t going to do that. I think he saw his fortunes in Hollywood were in such reversal that his most commercial hit was “The Stranger,” which was also his least personal film. By 1947 he also had the commercial and critical failure of “The Lady from Shanghai” behind him and “Macbeth” coming in, which they were very slow in cutting. So he goes to do a job in Europe, and while he’s over there, they treat him like a king, certainly as an actor. He’s like a guy who landed on a sunny beach and wonders, “Why the hell should I go back?”

And there was the simultaneous, absolute and definitive defeat of the Popular Front politics of the 1930s. He had such a sense of how things were going to go politically. He dodged a bullet. He was able to work and travel in Europe without being blacklisted or having his passport confiscated—unlike Chaplin or Paul Robeson—and he kept his mouth shut except through his work. I also think he got sick of his own celebrity. If we try to look at it as he might have seen it himself, you must remember that in 1947, he’s 32 years old. It’s not even midlife. At the noon of his life, he has to think, “It’s not compromising any principle to stand back and get out of the way.” The House Un-American Activities Committee is just gearing up again. If you’re Welles and you were around to see them make their first moves pre-war [HUAC had focused with maximum hostility on the Federal Theatre Project, and specifically on Welles’ radical play “The Cradle Will Rock,” as early as 1937], you can see that they’re even more firmly in power now after the war, and you have to ask yourself, “What are they gonna shut down next?” You might as well pull your horns in, go to Europe, make the movies you want to make, and come back when the climate has changed without having compromised yourself.

There’s another thing that happened in that period—the opening of the [German] death camps—and I wonder if that monolithic, monumental example of human evil—of a degree sufficient to leave anybody dumbstruck—might have prompted a switch in Welles from workaday political activism to a contemplation of pure, raw, unexampled human evil, the animal man, etc.

He of course acknowledges the death camps earlier than any other filmmaker, in “The Stranger,” in which the Loretta Young character is actually confronted with this evil, and the idea that her husband, played by Welles, is behind it. He’s an immigrant but also a very assimilated American, and that was very much Welles’ dramatic point—that this kind of thing is assimilated into humanity itself. The Nazis are the obvious villains here, but this arises out of human nature itself.

So let’s not congratulate ourselves just yet.

In early 1945, Welles started a daily syndicated column in which he wrote, “I believe that everybody should be interested in politics, but the disaster of the 1920s was that everybody left the practice of politics to the politicians.” Above all, he felt that the United States was going to be the dominant force in postwar geopolitics and would need a counterweight. As he wrote, “We are the greatest production plant and the greatest creditor nation. Without sensible economic agreements, Mr. Luce’s prediction of ‘the American Century’ will come true and God help us all. We’ll make Germany’s bid for supremacy look like amateur night and the inevitable retribution will be on a comparable scale.”

To which, from our dumbed-down, fearful tea party era of 70 years later, the only response is: Wow!

He sees that coming out of the death camps. He sees that, having won, even we are open to being polluted by the evil we have vanquished. And it’s not an American fault per se, it’s about human nature. He probably saw from about 1945-46, once he had fought for the rights of Isaac Woodard [a black World War II veteran brutally assaulted and blinded by a racist sheriff on his return home from the war], and having seen that racist sheriff who blinded him brought to justice, only to be acquitted in 15 minutes by an all-white jury—after which Welles’ radio show got cancelled, even though he had galvanized the nation about the case—it was obvious that the current political climate was not going to welcome his input. And he probably felt he was becoming too much of a target, and it was getting in the way of him doing what he did best. He felt he would be freer to make the same comments, the same moral points in his art. For example, instead of commenting on the air about mixed-race marriage as a natural right, as he had done, he made “Othello,” which deals with interracial marriage once and for all.

These things must inevitably have bred a bleakness and despair in Welles.

Welles had a very—I wouldn’t say despairing—but a very dark view of American politics, perhaps too dark to say it out loud. I think it’s greatly represented in “Touch of Evil.” I mean, here’s a movie, made five, six years before the Kennedy assassination, you’ve got a top political bigwig being murdered in a convertible close to the border with Mexico. It’s all pure coincidence, and yet you still get the sense that Kennedy’s death—the physical nature of it—one of the reasons it’s so memorably shocking is because it’s an emblem of American splendor and comfort riding along in a parade of its own authority—and then in an instant it’s gone. And I think Welles was very much in touch with that potential in American life—remember, FDR was also shot at in a convertible, in 1933. In “Touch of Evil,” obviously he’s not prophesying the Kennedy assassination, but seeing prophetically to the heart of the nemesis that awaits any exalted American leader. And assassination in “Touch of Evil” is followed by the taking down of the dark tyrant Hank Quinlan by use of wiretapping and hidden microphones. And here, history outstrips fiction to some extent, because 17 years later, Richard Nixon causes his own downfall by wiretapping himself, whereas you can’t imagine a figure like Hank Quinlan wiretapping himself!

Welles lived long enough to witness the dawn of the VHS era, and also to see movies he’d made that had disappeared—like “Chimes at Midnight” and an early edit of “Touch of Evil”—being broadcast on the Z Channel in Los Angeles, with which you were deeply involved as a consultant and programmer.

He was around long enough to realize that VHS made movies collectible, that his work could now be part of someone’s library. One of the most moving things I recall is Jerry Harvey, the head of Z Channel, and I, the night before Welles died, conspiring about how to gate-crash Ma Maison and get to Welles’ table. A couple of days earlier, [Henry] Jaglom had called up. He was with Welles, and he told us Orson couldn’t come to the phone right now because he was crying, he was so happy to see “Touch of Evil” on Z Channel. Welles was ecstatic because we were running “Chimes at Midnight” and all sorts of rare Welles stuff. And Welles would have been coming home from being on [The] Merv Griffin [Show] the very night Jerry and I were having that conversation, the night he died. But it was a great feeling to know that in the last weeks of his life, Welles was getting a sense of the afterlife of his work.

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Photo: Orson Welles

“God, how they’ll love me when I’m dead.”

Yes, he saw that too. There’s an awful idea of audience-love that wishes the matador would die horribly in the bullring. Because then we can love him forever. There’s that terrible adage that the torturer’s greatest act is to make the victim go on torturing himself after he gets up off the rack. But there’s a flip side to that, the ecstatic, positive version of it: that the artist’s greatest act is to leave you making your own art after the fact. You come away with your own wheels spinning.

Read entire article here

Orson Welles discography from Wikipedia

Drama

Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1938 April 1938 The Cradle Will Rock Seven 12″ 78 rpm records Musicraft Records (Musicraft 18) Slightly abridged version of Welles’s

1937 Mercury Theatre production with narration by Marc Blitzstein

First original cast recording ever made[2]:342[3]:251

1939 March 1, 11, 21 & 25, 1938[1]:340[2]:349 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar Five 12″ 78 rpm records Columbia Masterworks Records
(M-325)[4] Highlights from the Mercury Theatre stage production featuring original cast members
Incidental music by Marc Blitzstein
Cast: Orson Welles (Brutus), Joseph Holland (Caesar), George Coulouris (Marcus Antonius), Martin Gabel (Cassius), Hiram Sherman (Casca), John Hoystradt (Decius Brutus), John A. Willard (Trebonius,[1]:340 Volumnius)[5]
Released with Twelfth Night on Pearl CD in 1998[5]

1939 July 27, 28 & 29, August 23 & 25, September 7 & 14, 1938 The Merchant of Venice Twelve 12″ 78 rpm records Columbia Masterworks Records (C-6)[6] First of four releases in the Mercury Text Records series, phonographic recordings of William Shakespeare plays as adapted by Welles and Roger Hill in The Mercury Shakespeare
Music by Elliot Carter, singing by Adelyn Colla-Negri, guitar by Julius Wexler
Cast: Orson Welles (Narrator, Shylock, Prince of Morocco), Joseph Holland (Antonio), Eric Mansfield (Salarino), Norman Lloyd (Salanio, Launcelot Gobbo), Edgar Barrier (Bassanio, Prince of Arragon), Guy Kingsley (Lorenzo), Sidney Smith (Gratiano), Brenda Forbes (Portia), Sarah Burton (Nerissa), Erskine Sanford (Old Gobbo, The Duke), Virginia Welles (Jessica), George Duthie (Tubal), Richard Wilson (Salerio, Stephano), William Alland (Balthazar)[7]

1939 June 14, 16 & 17, 1938[2]:349 Twelfth Night Ten 12″ 78 rpm records Columbia Masterworks Records (C-7)[6] Mercury Text Records
Music by Marc Blitzstein
Cast: Orson Welles (Narrator, Malvolio), LeRoi Operti (Feste), George Coulouris (Orsino), William Alland (Curio), Richard Wilson (Calentine), Jane Gordon (Viola), John A. Willard (Sea Captain), Eustace Wyatt (Sir Toby Belch), Elizabeth Farrar (Maria), Will Geer (Sir Andrew Aguecheek), Phyllis Joyce (Olivia), Guy Kingsley (Sebastian), Erskine Sanford (Antonio), John Straub (Fabian), Edgerton Paul (Priest)[7]

1939 June 28, 29 & 30, 1939[1]:340 Julius Caesar Eleven 12″ 78 rpm records Columbia Masterworks Records (C-10)[6] Mercury Text Records
Music by Bernard Herrmann
Cast: Orson Welles (Narrator, Marcus Antonius, Caius Cassius), Edgar Barrier (Julius Caesar, Octavius Caesar), Walter Ash (M. AEmil Lepidus), John Berry, (Publius, Popilius Lena, Volumnius), George Coulouris (Marcus Brutus), Everett Sloane (Casca, Artemidorus), Guy Kingsley (Cinna the Conspirator, Lucius), Arthur Kennedy (Trebonius, Flavius, Titinius, Clitus), Erskine Sanford (Ligarius, Pindarus), Richard Baer (Decius Brutus, Cinna the Poet), Seymour Milbert (Metellus Cimber), William Alland (Marullus, Young Cato), Virginia Welles (Calpurnia), Margaret Curtis (Portia), Stephen Roberts (Lucilius, Messala)[8]

1940 April 17, 18, 20, 23, 24 & 26, 1940[9] Macbeth Nine 12″ 78 rpm records Columbia Masterworks Records (C-33)[6] Mercury Text Records
Music by Bernard Herrmann
Cast: William Alland (Narrator, Donalbain), Orson Welles (Macbeth), Fay Bainter (Lady Macbeth), Robert Warrick (Banquo), Erskine Sanford (Duncan, The Porter, Siward, Seyton), George Coulouris (Macduff, Angus, The Doctor), Edith Barrett (Lady Macduff, Gentlewoman), Edgar Barrier (Malcolm), Sam Edwards (Fleance, Macduff’s son), Richard Wilson (Lennox), Richard Baer (Ross, Young Siward), [9][10]

1945 August 23, 1944[1]:341 The Song of Songs (Which Is Solomon’s) 12″ 78 rpm record Decca Records (29157) Welles reads a fragmentary wedding idyll from the Bible[11]

1945 August 31 & September 9, 1944; August 20, 1945[1]:341 In the American Tradition Three 12″ 78 rpm records Decca Records (A-394) Welles reads Thomas Jefferson’s first inaugural address (March 4, 1801), Abraham Lincoln’s second inaugural address (March 4, 1865), Woodrow Wilson’s address to the Peace Conference in Paris (January 25, 1919), Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s first war address before Congress (January 6, 1942)[12]

1946 August 21, 1945[1]:341 The Happy Prince Two 10″ 78 rpm records Decca Records (DA-420) Welles’s adaptation of the story by Oscar Wilde[13]
Music by Bernard Herrmann, conducted by Victor Young
Cast: Orson Welles, Bing Crosby, Lurene Tuttle[1]:341
“It wasn’t released for a year because neither of us would take first billing. In the end, they had to toss a coin just to get the thing out.” (Orson Welles)[2]:188

1946 (April) August 30 & 31, September 8, 9, 11 & 13, 1944, September 19, 1945[1]:341 No Man Is an Island Five 12″ 78 rpm records Decca Records (A-439) Welles reads a collection of immortal speeches on the interdependence of man
Authors include John Brown, Lazare Carnot, John Donne, Patrick Henry, Abraham Lincoln, Pericles, Daniel Webster, Émile Zola[1]:341[14]

1951 Abraham Lincoln LP record Decca Records (DL 8515)[1]:342 Writings by and about Abraham Lincoln, read by Welles, Carl Sandburg, Walter Huston and Agnes Moorehead
Music by Lehman Engle and Victor Young[15]

1953 June 1939 Julius Caesar Two LP records Entree (EL 52) Reissue of Columbia Masterworks Records C-10[1]:342

1958 August 1944–September 1945 No Man Is an Island LP Record Decca Records (DL 9060) Reissue of Decca Records A-439[16]

1959 A Lincoln Treasury LP record Decca Records (DL 9065)[1]:342 Reissue of material from Decca Records DL 8515
Includes The Lonesome Train, a drama in folk music form with Burl Ives, narrated by Earl Robinson[1]:342[17]

1964 (December) April 1938 The Cradle Will Rock LP record American Legacy Records (T1001) Limited-edition reissue of Musicraft Records 18[2]:342[3]:251

1967 June 1939 Julius Caesar Two LP records Lexington (LE 7570/7575) Reissue of Columbia Masterworks Records C-10[1]:342

1969 1969 The Begatting of the President LP record Mediarts Records (41-2) Satire of Richard M. Nixon written by Myron Roberts, Lincoln Haynes and Sasha Gilien, narrated by Welles[18]

1972 1969 The Begatting of the President LP record United Artists (UAS-5521) Reissue of Mediarts Records 41-2[1]:342

1976 Great American Documents LP record Columbia Masterworks (USA 1776) Readings by Welles, Henry Fonda, Helen Hayes and James Earl Jones; music by the New York Philharmonic conducted by Leonard Bernstein[1]:343[19]

Winner, Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Recording[20]

1976 October 18, 1966[21] Blitzstein: The Airborne Symphony LP record Columbia Masterworks (M34136) Commissioned in 1943 by the United States Army, officially dedicated to the Eighth Air Force
A history of human flight narrated by Welles, who performed the same role at the work’s acclaimed premiere April 1, 1946[22]

Leonard Bernstein conducting the New York Philharmonic[1]:343[23][24]

William Jonson conducting the Choral Art Society
Andrea Velis, tenor
Recorded at Philharmonic Hall, Lincoln Center[21]

1979 The Gift of Christmas: Army of Stars LP record The Salvation Army (KM 4395) Narration by Welles, music by the Roger Wagner Chorale and Sinfonia Orchestra[25]

1983 The Gift of Christmas: Army of Stars LP record The Salvation Army (KM 11576) Music and readings by Welles, James Stewart, William Conrad, Greer Garson, Michael Landon, The Roger Wagner Chorale[26]

1984 1984 I Know What It Is To Be Young 7″ single record Max Records (43057) Song by Jerry Abbott, lyrics read by Welles, music by The Ray Charles Singers and the Nick Perito Orchestra[27]
1984 1984 I Know What It Is To Be Young 12″ single record GNP Crescendo Records (GNPS 1206) [28]
1984 1984 I Know What It Is To Be Young 7″ single record Indisc (DIS 7738) [28]
1984 1984 I Know What It Is To Be Young 7″ single record Splash Records (SP 29) [28]
1985 1984 I Know What It Is To Be Young 7″ single record GNP Crescendo Records (GNP 834S ) [28]
1988 1984 I Know What It Is To Be Young 12″ single record Compagnia Generale del Disco (INT 15367) [28]
1996 1984 I Know What It Is To Be Young Audiocassette
CD single GNP Crescendo Records (GNPD 1407) [29][28]

1998 April 1938 Marc Blitzstein: Musical Theatre Premières Two CDs Pearl (GEMS 0009) Reissue of The Cradle Will Rock (Musicraft Records 18)

Includes No for an Answer (1941), Dusty Sun (1946), The Airborne Symphony (1946, narrated by Robert Shaw)[30]
1998 April 1940 Macbeth CD Pearl (GEM 0011) Reissue of Columbia Masterworks Records C-33[9]

1998 June 1938 & March 1938 Twelfth Night and The Tragedy of Julius Caesar Two CDs Pearl (GEMS 0020) Reissue of Columbia Masterworks Records C-7 and M-325
Includes Fun with Mr. Shakespeare: The Comedy of Errors (1947), narrated by Charles Coburn[5]

1998 July–September 1938 The Merchant of Venice Two CDs Pearl (GEMS 0029) Reissue of Columbia Masterworks Records C-6
Includes excerpts of Macbeth by Maurice Evans and Judith Anderson (1941)[31]

1999 June 1939 Julius Caesar Two CDs Pearl (GEMS 0015) Reissue of Columbia Masterworks Records C-10
Includes Maurice Evans performing four scenes from Richard II (1937) and the “England” speeches from Richard II and Henry V (1941)[8]

2000 October 18, 1966 American Masters 2: Bernstein Century CD Sony Classics (SMK 61849) Includes remastered reissue of The Airborne Symphony from Columbia Masterworks M34136[21]

2001 1944–45 Dramatic Readings CD Pearl (GEM 0109) Reissue of In the American Tradition (Decca Records A-394), No Man Is an Island (Decca Records A-439) and The Song of Songs (Decca Records 29157)[32]

Radio

Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1945 January The Suspect 78 rpm record Universal Pictures Welles performs the lead role in this dramatization for radio broadcast, to promote release of the 1944 film noir starring Charles Laughton[33]

1945 July 17, 1945[2]:391 The Liberation of Paris Three 12″ 78 rpm records Asch Records (Asch 50)[1]:341 Montage of historic recordings related to the World War II liberation of Paris in August 1944, with narration by Welles and Emlen Etting[34][35][36]:140[37]

1950 October 15, 1950[38] This Is the U.N.: Its Actual Voices 12″ 78 rpm record[39] Tribune Productions (KI-2807)[1]:341 Recordings of United Nations highlights, from the founding conference in San Francisco to the Korean debate, including remarks by Welles and many others[38][1]:341[40]

1955 October 30, 1938 The War of the Worlds LP record Audio Rarities (LPA 2355) Edited recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast[1]:341[41]

1968 October 30, 1938 The War of the Worlds LP record Longines Symphonette Society (4001) Recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast[42]

1968 1953 Song of Myself LP record Westminster (WBBC-8004) Recording of Welles’s BBC presentation of the poem from Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass[1]:342

1969 October 30, 1938 The War of the Worlds Two LP records Murray Hill records Recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast[42]

1969 October 30, 1938 The War of the Worlds Two LP records Evolution Records (4001) Recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast[42]

1972 1953 Song of Myself LP record CMS Records (CMS-636) Reissue of Westminster Records WBBC-8004,[1]:342 “in arrangement with BBC Radio Enterprises”[43]

1972 1937–38 The Shadow LP record Mark 56 Records (591) Recording of two unspecified original radio episodes
Produced by George Garabedian as a promotional disc for Coca-Cola[44]

1972 1972 Author’s Roundtable 10” single record AirLines Transcription Disc Collection of radio news features concludes with a spot for a history program narrated by Welles, “The Heritage of Eastern Cities”[45]

1972 October 30, 1938 The War of the Worlds LP record Longines Symphonette Society (SY 5251) Recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast[1]:342

1973 September 2, 1942; April 10, 1945 The Hitch-Hiker / The Master of Ballantrae LP record Pelican Records (107) Recording of “The Hitch-Hiker” from Suspense, and the episode “The Master of Ballantrae” from This Is My Best[46][47]

1973 1938 The Shadow / Fibber McGee and Molly LP record Mark 56 Records (636) Includes recording of one unspecified episode of The Shadow starring Welles
Produced as a promotional disc for the Anaheim Savings and Loan Association[48][49]

1973 May 29, 1938 The Shadow / The Lone Ranger LP record Mark 56 Records (649, 773) Includes recording of one radio episode starring Welles, “The Creeper”
Produced as a promotional disc for GE Lamps [50]and for Carl’s Jr.[51]

1973 June 12, 1938 The Shadow: Volume Two LP record Mark 56 Records (608) Includes recording of one radio episode starring Welles, “Murder on Approval”[1]:343[52]

1974 September 25, 1938 The Immortal Sherlock Holmes LP record Radiola Records (1036)[1]:344 Recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast[53]

1974 March 17, 1940 Huckleberry Finn LP record Mark 56 Records (634) Recording of The Campbell Playhouse radio broadcast[1]:343[54]

1974 January 23 & 30, 1938 The Shadow: Volume Three LP record Mark 56 Records (657) Recording of two radio episodes starring Welles: “The Society of the Living Dead”, “The Poison Death”[1]:343[55]

1975 March 17, 1940 The Golden Days of Radio Two LP records Mark 56 Records (713) Includes recording of The Campbell Playhouse episode “Huckleberry Finn”[1]:343[56]

1975 July 11, 1938 The Great Radio Horror Shows Three LP records Murray Hill Records (933977) Includes recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air episode “Dracula”[1]:343

1976 July 11, 1938 Dracula LP record Mark 56 Records (720) Recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast[1]:343
1976 March 27, April 24, May 1, 8, 29, June 12, 1938 The Shadow Three LP records Murray Hill Records (894599) Recording of six 1938 radio broadcasts starring Welles: “The White God”, “Murder on Approval”, “Aboard the Steamship Amazon”, “The Creeper” “The Power of the Mind”, “The Hypnotized Audience”[1]:343[57]

1977 June 5 & 19, 1938 The Shadow LP record Golden Age Records (GA 5001)
Everest 5001 Recording of two 1938 radio broadcasts starring Welles: “The Tenor with the Broken Voice”, “The Tomb of Terror”[1]:343[58]

1978 April 3 & 10, 1938 The Shadow LP record Golden Age Records (GA 5029)
Everest 5029 Recording of two 1938 radio broadcasts starring Welles: “Death From the Deep”, “The Firebug”[1]:343[59][60]

1978 July 18, 1938 Treasure Island LP record Radiola (MR-1085) Recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast[61]
1978 January 23 & 30, 1938 The Shadow: Volume Four LP record Mark 56 Records (771) Recording of two radio episodes starring Welles: “The Society of the Living Dead”, “The Poison Death”
Customer gift from J. W. Harris Co., Inc.[62]

1978 June 21, 1946 Sorry, Wrong Number and The Hitch Hiker LP record Mark 56 Records (787) Includes Welles’s Suspense radio broadcast[63][64]

1979 October 24, 31, 1937; January 9, 16, 23, 30, February 6, March 6 & 13, 1938 More of The Shadow Three LP records Murray Hill Records (M 51212) Recording of nine 1937–38 radio broadcasts starring Welles: “The Temple Bells of Neban”, “The Three Ghosts”, “The League of Terror”, “Sabotage”, “The Poison Death”, “The Society of the Living Dead”, “The Phantom Voice”, “Bride of Death”, “The Silent Avenger”[1]:343[65]

1979 June 2, 1939; April 17, 1945 Orson Welles and Helen Hayes at Their Best Two LP records Mark 56 Records (829) Includes recording of “Victoria Regina” (The Campbell Playhouse) and “I Will Not Go Back” (This Is My Best)[1]:343
1980 April 17, May 15, 22, August 21 & 28, 1938 The Shadow Anthology Seventeen LP records Murray Hill Records (S 55111) Includes recordings of five 1938 radio episodes starring Welles: “The Blind Beggar Dies”, “Murder in Wax”, “The Message from the Hills”, “Caverns of Death”, “Death Under the Chapel”[1]:343
Numbered limited edition collectors set[66]

1980 December 24, 1939 A Christmas Carol LP record Mark 56 Records (724) Recording of The Campbell Playhouse radio broadcast
Produced as a promotional disc for Nordstrom[67]

1980 December 24, 1939 A Christmas Carol LP record Radiola Records (MR-1114) Recording of The Campbell Playhouse radio broadcast[68]

1980 May 18 & 25, 1944 Donovan’s Brain LP record Radiola Records (MR-1117) Recording of the Suspense radio broadcast[69]

Winner, Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word, Documentary or Drama Recording[70]
1980 August 14, 1945; September 13, 1946 Obediently Yours Orson Welles LP record Mark 56 Records (833) Recording of radio broadcasts “Fourteen August” (Columbia Presents Corwin) and “King Lear” (The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air)[1]:344

1982 July 25, 1938 Bette Orson Ingrid LP record Mark 56 Records (848) Includes recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast “A Tale of Two Cities”[1]:344

1983 August 29, 1938 The Count of Monte Cristo LP record Radiola Records (MR-1145) Recording of The Mercury Theatre on the Air radio broadcast[71]

1985 July 17, 1945 The Liberation of Paris LP record Folkways Records (FH 5260) Reissue of Asch Records 50[1]:344

1988 March 20, 1938–June 21, 1946 Theatre of the Imagination: Radio Stories by Orson Welles and The Mercury Theatre LaserDisc (audio only) Voyager Company (V1012L) Quality collection of recordings produced by Frank Beacham and Richard Wilson from acetate records of the original radio broadcasts

The Shadow: “The White Legion”

The Mercury Theatre on the Air: “A Tale of Two Cities”

The Campbell Playhouse: “Rebecca”

Interview: “H. G. Wells meets Orson Welles”

Orson Welles Show: “The Song of Solomon”, “There’s a Full Moon Tonight”, “Noah Webster’s Library” and poetry by Dorothy Parker, “Wilbur Brown, Habitat: Brooklyn”,”The Apple Tree”, “My Little Boy”

Reading Out Loud: Welles reads and remarks on John Donne’s “The Sun Rising” and “No Man Is an Island”

The Orson Welles Almanac: Soliloquy from Hamlet

This Is My Best: “Heart of Darkness”

The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air: “The Hitch-Hiker”

Orson Welles Commentaries: “Doris Miller Tribute”

Theatre of the Imagination: The Mercury Company Remembers (1988), audio documentary written and produced by Frank Beacham and narrated by Leonard Maltin; participants include William Alland, Richard Barr, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Arlene Francis, John Houseman, Cliff Thorsness, Peggy Webber and Richard Wilson; also includes previously recorded interviews with Welles and Bernard Herrmann[72]

1988 March 20, 1938–June 21, 1946 Theatre of the Imagination Six audiocassettes Voyager Company [73]

1995 March 20, 1938–June 21, 1946 Theatre of the Imagination CD-ROM Voyager Company (CityROM CTHEATH) Interactive disc for PC/Windows or Macintosh[74]
2003 March 15–July 12, 1944 Kid Ory — Portrait of the Greatest Slideman Ever Born CD Upbeat Recordings URCD187 Includes most of Orson Welles’s introductions of the All Star Jazz Group performances on The Orson Welles Almanac[75]

2008 June 21 & July 12, 1946, September 15, 1941 Your Obedient Servant CD él Records (ACMEM140CD) Recordings of The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air radio broadcasts “The Hitch-Hiker” and “The Search for Henri Lefevre” by Lucille Fletcher, and the Orson Welles Show broadcast “Sredni Vashtar” by Saki[76][77]

Film

Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1959 1959 Compulsion 7″ single record 20th Fox Records (FEP-101) Original motion picture soundtrack of courtroom scene[1]:342[78]

1964 1964 The Finest Hours Two LP Records Mercury Records (SRP 2-604) Original motion picture soundtrack[1]:342[79]

1967 1966 A Man for All Seasons Two LP Records RCA Victor Records (VDM-116) Original motion picture soundtrack[1]:342[80]

1978 1941 Citizen Kane Two LP records Mark 56 Records (810) Complete motion picture soundtrack[1]:343[81]
Winner, Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Recording[82]

“This is not a new recording, but it includes the entire soundtrack — dialogue, sound effects, and music — just as it appears in the film. Though any soundtrack of a film is dependent on the visuals for narrative, the soundtrack of Citizen Kane succeeds by itself, no doubt because of Welles’s and Herrmann’s extensive background in producing radio dramas. … Garabadian’s release of Citizen Kane’s entire soundtrack (47 years after its premiere) is indicative of a changing trend in the release of music soundtracks. After record producers noticed that consumers would accept a compilation of excerpts as they appear in the film, there was less of a desire to record suites and other concert arrangements. Though suites are suitable for the concert hall, their contents reflect a necessary alteration of the original film score.” (Robert Kosovsky)[83]:224
1979 1979 The Late Great Planet Earth LP record RCR Productions (ACG-10022) Original motion picture soundtrack[84]

1980 1967 A King’s Story LP Record DRG Records (SL 5185) Original motion picture soundtrack[1]:344[85]

Interviews

Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1979 November 7, 1940 Orson Welles Interviews H. G. Wells LP record Radiola Records (MR-1101) Interview of Welles and Wells in San Antonio, Texas[1]:343
1992 1969–1975 This is Orson Welles Four audiocassettes HarperAudio Interviews with Peter Bogdanovich
Nominee, Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Album.[86][87]

Scores

Citizen Kane
Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1967 June 1967 Welles Raises Kane and The Devil and Daniel Webster LP record Pye Records (TPLS 13010) Concert suite arrangements of film music cues written by Bernard Herrmann, who conducts the London Philharmonic Orchestra
Includes “Welles Raises Kane” (1943), subtitled “A Divertissement of the Gay Nineties”[88][83]:223

“Overture” (combines “Chronicle Scherzo”, cue 46, and “Kane’s Return”, cue 50)
“Variations” (from The Magnificent Ambersons)
“Ragtime” (“Kane’s New Office”, cue 43)
“Antimacassar” (from The Magnificent Ambersons)
“Finale — Pursuit and Happiness” (combines “Galop”, cue 39,[89] and “Kane Marries”, cues 65–69[90]:41)

1970 February 1970 Music from Great Film Classics LP record London Records (SP 44144)
Decca Records (PFS 4213) Includes the “Welles Raises Kane” suite, performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Bernard Herrmann[91][92]

1973 June 1967 Welles Raises Kane and The Devil and Daniel Webster LP record Unicorn Records (UNS 237) Reissue of Pye Records TPLS 13010[93]

1974 June 11–13, 1974 Citizen Kane: The Classic Film Scores of Bernard Herrmann LP record RCA Victor Records (ARL1-0707) Performed by the National Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Charles Gerhardt, with Kiri Te Kanawa, soprano
Includes “Prelude: Xanadu; Snow Picture”; “Theme and Variations (Breakfast Montage)”; “Aria from Salammbô”; “Rosebud and Finale”[94][95]

1974 June 11–13, 1974 Citizen Kane: The Classic Film Scores of Bernard Herrmann Audiocassette RCA Victor Records [96]

1974 June 11–13, 1974 Citizen Kane: The Classic Film Scores of Bernard Herrmann CD RCA Victor Records [97]

1975 Citizen Kane: The Original Motion Picture Score LP record United Artists Records (UL-LA372-G) Conducted by LeRoy Holmes; orchestration by Paul Swain,[98] who transcribed much of the News on the March montage of various pieces of film music and re-orchestrated Herrmann’s work to bring about an “easy-listening” recording of questionable merit[83]:224

1978 1941 Citizen Kane Two LP records Mark 56 Records (810) Complete motion picture soundtrack, including score, dialogue and sound effects; see detail in Film section[1]:343

1991 1991 Citizen Kane: Original 1941 Motion Picture Score CD Preamble (PRCD 1788) Performed by the Australian Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Tony Bremner, with Rosamund Illing, soprano[99][100]

1993 December 1–2, 1992 Bernard Herrmann Film Scores: From Citizen Kane to Taxi Driver CD Milan Entertainment (Milan 7313835643-2) Performed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Elmer Bernstein
Includes “Citizen Kane Suite” — Prelude; The Inquirer (Polka); Finale; End Cast (“Oh Mr. Kane”, arranged by Conrad Salinger)[101]

1994 June 1967 Welles Raises Kane / The Devil and Daniel Webster / Obsession CD Unicorn-Kanchana Records (UKCD 2065) Includes reissue of Unicorn Records UNS 237[102]
1999 February 26, 1997; May 2, 1998; September 23, 1999 Citizen Kane: Original Motion Picture Score CD Varèse Sarabande Records (VSD-5806) Performed by the Royal Scottish National Orchestra conducted by Joel McNeely, with Janice Watson, soprano[103][104]

2006 July 3, 1949 Music from the Films of Orson Welles, Vol. 1 CD él Records (ACMEM68CD) Includes the complete “Welles Raises Kane” suite,[105] performed by the CBS Symphony Orchestra conducted by Herrmann and broadcast on CBS Radio[106][107]

2011 June 11–13, 1974 Citizen Kane: The Classic Film Scores of Bernard Herrmann CD RCA Victor Records [108][109]
“The Hitch-Hiker”
Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1983 Bernard Herrmann’s Outer Space Suite LP record Cerberus Records (CST-0208) Includes CBS Music Library recording of the score (7:14) for the original radio play “The Hitch-Hiker” by Lucille Fletcher, first broadcast November 17, 1941, on the Orson Welles Show
Hermann’s score was subsequently used for Welles’s presentations of the original radio play on Suspense (September 2, 1942), The Philip Morris Playhouse (October 16, 1942) and The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air (June 21, 1946)
The score has also been used on television programs including the 1960 adaptation “The Hitch-Hiker” for The Twilight Zone[110][111][112]

The Magnificent Ambersons
Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1967 June 1967 Welles Raises Kane and The Devil and Daniel Webster LP record Pye Records (TPLS 13010) Concert suite arrangements of film music cues written by Bernard Herrmann, who conducts the London Philharmonic Orchestra
Includes “Welles Raises Kane” (1943), subtitled “A Divertissement of the Gay Nineties”[88]

“Overture” (from Citizen Kane)
“Variations” (the first cue from The Magnificent Ambersons)
“Ragtime” (from Citizen Kane)
“Antimacassar” (“First Letter Scene” from The Magnificent Ambersons)
“Finale — Pursuit and Happiness” (from Citizen Kane)[83]:223

1970 February 1970 Music from Great Film Classics LP record London Records (SP 44144)
Decca Records (PFS 4213) Includes the “Welles Raises Kane” suite, performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Bernard Herrmann
Omits the fourth section, “Antimacassar”, and misidentifies the work as simply “music from Citizen Kane[83]:223[91][92]

1973 June 1967 Welles Raises Kane and The Devil and Daniel Webster LP record Unicorn Records (UNS 237) Reissue of Pye Records TPLS 13010[113]
1990 1990 The Magnificent Ambersons: Original 1942 Motion Picture Score CD Preamble (PRCD 1783) Performed by the Australian Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Tony Bremner[114][115]

Recording based on composer Bernard Herrmann’s original full score, more than half of which was removed from the soundtrack when The Magnificent Ambersons was heavily edited by RKO; Herrmann threatened legal action and refused to be credited[116]

2006 July 3, 1949 Music from the Films of Orson Welles, Vol. 1 CD él Records (ACMEM68CD) Includes the complete “Welles Raises Kane” suite,[117] performed by the CBS Symphony Orchestra conducted by Herrmann and broadcast on CBS Radio[106][107]

Macbeth
Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1990 1989 Macbeth/Golgotha/Don Quichotte CD Marco Polo Records (8.223287) Includes music from Macbeth by Jacques Ibert, performed by the Slovak Radio Symphony Orchestra conducted by Adriano[118][119][120]

2005 1989 Film Music Classics: Macbeth/Golgotha/Don Quichotte CD Naxos Records (8.557607) Reissue of Marco Polo 8.223287[119][120]

Othello
Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1993 1992 Orson Welles’ Othello CD Varèse Sarabande Records (VSD-5420) “A labor of love” (Roger Ebert)[121]
Score from the 1992 restoration of Othello
Music from Angelo Francesco Lavagnino’s original score as annotated by conductor Michael Pendowski, performed by members of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra and the Chicago Lyric Opera[122]

“A highly subjective reworking of some of the original materials, a postmodernist dream inspired by the original Othello sound track” (Jonathan Rosenbaum)[123][124][125]

Touch of Evil
Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1958 1958 Touch of Evil: Music from the Sound Track LP record Challenge Records (CHL-602) Music from the soundtrack of Touch of Evil, composed by Henry Mancini, performed by the Universal-International Orchestra conducted by Joseph Gershenson[126]

1980 1958 Touch of Evil: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack LP record Citadel Records (CT 7016) Reissue with six additional tracks[127]

1993 1958 Touch of Evil: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack CD Varèse Sarabande Records (VSD-5414) Reissue with one more additional track[128][129][130]

Chimes at Midnight
Release date Original recording date Title Format Label Notes
1966 1965 Chimes at Midnight LP Record Fontana Records (TL 5417) Original soundtrack recording from Chimes at Midnight, music by Angelo Francesco Lavagnino, conducted by Pier Luigi Urbini[131][132]

1993 1965 Falstaff CD CAM (CSE 098) Original soundtrack remastered[133]

2003 1965 Falstaff CD CAM (CAM 4932032) Reissue[134]

Orson Welles

Filmography Radio credits Theatre credits Discography Bibliography Awards and nominations

Feature films

Citizen Kane (1941) The Magnificent Ambersons (1942) The Stranger (1946) The Lady from Shanghai (1947) Macbeth (1948) Othello (1952) Mr. Arkadin (1955) Touch of Evil (1958) The Trial (1962) Chimes at Midnight (1965) The Immortal Story (1968) F for Fake (1974) Filming Othello (1978)


Shorts

Twelfth Night (1933) The Hearts of Age (1934) Too Much Johnson (1938) Citizen Kane trailer (1940) Around the World (lost film) (1946) The Miracle of St. Anne (lost film) (1950) Magic Trick (1953) The Dominici Affair (1955) Portrait of Gina (1958) An Evening with Orson Welles (1970) Orson’s Bag (1968–69)
incorporating Vienna (1968) The Merchant of Venice (1969) One Man Band, aka London (1968–71) Moby Dick (1971) F for Fake trailer (1976) Orson Welles’ Magic Show (1976–85) The Spirit of Charles Lindbergh (1984)

Unfinished films

It’s All True (1942) Moby Dick—Rehearsed (lost film) (1955) Don Quixote (1957–69) The Heroine (lost film) (1967) The Deep (1967–70) The Other Side of the Wind (1970–76) Filming ‘The Trial’ (1981) The Dreamers (1980–82)

Films in which
Welles directed
some scenes

Journey into Fear (1943) Follow the Boys (1944) Black Magic (1949) Three Cases of Murder (1955) David and Goliath (1960) No Exit (1962) The Southern Star (1969)

Films derived
from Welles
screenplays

Monsieur Verdoux (1947) Cyrano de Bergerac (1950) Treasure Island (1972) Cradle Will Rock (1999) The Big Brass Ring (1999)

Television

Orson Welles’ Sketch Book (1955) Around the World with Orson Welles (1955) Orson Welles and People (lost) (1956) The Fountain of Youth (1958) In the Land of Don Quixote (1964) The Orson Welles Show (1979)

Theatre

Voodoo Macbeth (1936) Horse Eats Hat (1936) The Second Hurricane (1937) The Cradle Will Rock (musical) (1937–38) Too Much Johnson (1938) Five Kings (Part One) (1939) Native Son (1941) The Mercury Wonder Show (1943) Around the World (musical) (1946) The Blessed and the Damned (containing two plays: “The Unthinking Lobster” and “Time Runs…”) (1950) Othello (1951) The Lady in the Ice (ballet) (1953) Moby Dick—Rehearsed (1955) Chimes at Midnight (1960) Rhinoceros (1960)

Radio

Les Misérables (1937) The Shadow (1937–38) The Mercury Theatre on the Air (including “The War of the Worlds”) (1938) The Campbell Playhouse (1938–40) Orson Welles Show (1941–42) Ceiling Unlimited (1942–43) Hello Americans (1942–43) The Orson Welles Almanac (1944) This Is My Best (1945) Orson Welles Commentaries (1945–46) The Mercury Summer Theatre on the Air (1946) The Adventures of Harry Lime (1951–52) The Black Museum (1951–52)

Books

This is Orson Welles (co-written with Peter Bogdanovich; 1992, rev.1998) Les Bravades (1996)

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